Obstetrics and gynaecology
Liposuction removes fat from your body using suction. During liposuction, small, thin, blunt-tipped tubes (cannula) are inserted through tiny cuts in the skin. Fat is suctioned out through these tubes as the doctor moves the tubes around under the skin to target specific fat deposits.
In recent years, improved techniques have made liposuction safer, easier, and less painful. These newer techniques include:
Tumescent liposuction: A local anesthetic is used to numb the area of your body where the tube will be inserted. Next, a large amount of an anesthetic solution containing lidocaine and epinephrine is injected into the fatty tissue before traditional liposuction is performed. Tumescent liposuction may not require general anesthesia (which makes you sleep through the procedure).
Ultrasound-assisted liposuction: This technique uses ultrasound to liquefy the fat, which makes it easier to remove. This technique may be particularly helpful in removing fat from the upper abdomen, sides, and back.
Liposuction is usually done as an outpatient procedure in a properly equipped doctor's office, ambulatory surgery center, or hospital. In general, it does not require an overnight hospital stay unless a large volume of fat is being removed. But liposuction of large areas of the body should only be done in a hospital or licensed surgical center.1Local anesthesia is used in some cases, and you may or may not be given a sedative to help you relax. If a large area or volume of fat is being treated, general anesthesia or deep sedation with a local anesthetic may be used.
What To Expect After Treatment
After the procedure, the area of the body that was treated is firmly wrapped to help reduce swelling, bruising, and pain. Elastic bandages and tape, support hose (such as those used to treat varicose veins), a special girdle, or another type of firm-fitting garment may be used, depending on which part of the body was treated. You may have to wear the compression garment or wrap for 3 to 4 weeks. Expect a lot of bruising and swelling for at least the first 7 to 10 days.
Fluid may drain from the incision sites for several days. In some cases, you may be given antibiotics to reduce the risk of infection.
Most people are able to get up and move around as soon as the treatment is finished and after the effects of the anesthesia and any sedation have worn off. You can return to your normal activities as soon as you feel comfortable, although this may take several days to a few weeks. Most people can return to work within a few days. Recovery may take longer if large areas were treated.
Why It Is Done
The main purpose of liposuction is to reshape one or more areas of your body, not to reduce body weight. Liposuction is typically used on "problem" areas that have not responded well to diet and exercise. These areas are often on the outer thighs and hips on women and the waist and back on men. The face, neck, abdomen, back, buttocks, legs, and upper arms are all commonly treated areas.
Liposuction is sometimes used in combination with other cosmetic surgery procedures, such as a "tummy tuck" (abdominoplasty), breast reduction, or face-lift.
Liposuction may also be used to treat certain medical conditions, including:
Benign fatty tumors (lipomas).
Abnormal enlargement of the male breasts (gynecomastia or pseudogynecomastia).
Problems with metabolism of fat in the body (lipodystrophy).
Excessive sweating in the armpit area (axillary hyperhidrosis).
Liposuction is not used to treat obesity. It will not get rid of cellulite or stretch marks.
How Well It Works
Liposuction is usually very effective at removing fat deposits in small areas. But if you regain weight after having liposuction, the fatty bulges that were removed are likely to return or may appear in a different place.
Some improvement in body contour is usually noticeable right after surgery, and improvement may continue for several weeks or even months as the swelling goes away. The full effects of having liposuction may not be visible for several months to a year.
Liposuction generally does not tighten the skin over the treated area. After fat has been removed, the skin around the area may be somewhat loose. It may take up to 6 months for the skin to tighten around the treated area. Some people's skin is very elastic and retracts more quickly than other people's skin. Younger skin tends to have greater elasticity than older skin.
People who expect liposuction to help them lose weight are usually disappointed.